Language Revitalization

Recommended Books

American Council On The Teaching Of Foreign Languages. ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines 2012. 3rd ed.

Austin, Peter K., and Julia Sallabank, ed. The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages. . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Crystal, David. Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6th ed. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2008,

Dauenhauer, Nora Marks and Richard Dauenhauer. Haa Shuka: Tlingit Oral Narratives. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981.

—-. Haa Tuwunáagu Yís: For Our Healing Spirit. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990.

Elkartea, Garabide. Language standardisation: Basque recovery II. Gertu: Creative Commons, 2010.

Fishman, Joshua. “Domains and the Relationship Between Micro- and Macrosociolinguistics,” in Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication. Reprint. Ed. John Gumperz and Dell Hymes, 435-453. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986 (Original 1972).

—-. Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1991.

Grenoble, Lenore A.; Whaley, Lindsay J. Saving Languages: An Introduction to Language Revitalization. Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Hinton, Leanne and Ken Hale, ed. The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice. Leidien & Boston: Brill, 2003.

Hinton. Leanne. Brining Our Languages Home: Language Revitalization for Families. Berkeley: Heyday, 2013

Meek, Barbra A. We Are Our Language: An Ethnography of Language Revitalization in a Northern Athabaskan Community. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2012.

Perley, Bernard C. Defying Maliseet Language Death: Emergent Vitalities of Language, Culture, and Identity in Eastern Canada. University of Nebraska Press, 2012.

Tsunoda, Tasaku. Language Endangerment and Language Revitalization: An Introduction. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 2006. 

Recommended Articles

ʻAha Pūnana Leo a me Ka Haka ʻUla O Keʻelikōlani. Kumu Honua Mauli Ola: He Kālaimana‘o Ho‘ona‘auao ‘Ōiwi Hawai‘i. Hilo: ʻAha Pūnana Leo a me Ka Haka ʻUla O Keʻelikōlani, 2009.

Bamgbose, Ayo. “Issues for a Model of Language Planning.” Language Problems and Language Planning 13.1 (1989), 24 –34.

Bellemare, Andrea. “Mohawk Immersion School Founder Honoured By Wilfrid Laurier University.” CBC News. Last Updated: Jun 23, 2015. Retrieved from

Brondum, Jack and Nancy Stenson. “Types of Immersion Education: An Introduction.” The ACIE Newsletter 1:2 (February 1998). Retrieved from

Dauenhauer, Nora Marks and Richard Dauenhauer. “Technical, emotional, and ideological issues in reversing language shift: examples from Southeast Alaska.” Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response. Ed. Lenore Grenoble and Lindsay Whaley. New York: Cambridge, 1998, 57–93.

Fortune, Tara Williams. “What the Research Says About Immersion.” Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA). University of Minnesota Twin Cities Campus. Retrieved from

Hallett, Darcy, Michael J. Chandler, and Christopher E. Lalonde. “Aboriginal Language Knowledge and Youth Suicide.” Cognitive Development 22 (2007) 392–399

Johnson, Sʔímlaʔxw Michele K. “Yaʕ̓tmín Cqwəlqwilt Nixw, Uł Nixw, Ul Nixw, I Need To Speak More, And More, And More: Okanagan-Colville (Interior Salish) Indigenous Second-Language Learners Share Our Filmed Narratives.” Language Documentation & Conservation 8 (2014).

Language Testing International. “How Long Does it Take to Become Proficient?” Accessed June 14, 216. from

Lewis, P.M., and Simons, G.F. “Assessing Endangerment: Expanding Fishman’s Gids.” Revue Roumaine de Linguistique. Dallas: SIL International, 2009. 1–30.

MacIntyre, Peter D., Zoltán Dörnyei, Richard Clément and Kimberly A. Noels. “Conceptualizing Willingness to Communicate in a L2: A Situational Model of L2 Confidence and Affiliation.” The Modern Language Journal 82.4 (Winter, 1998), 545-56.

Maracle, Iehnhotonkwas Bonnie Jane. “Adult Mohawk Language Immersion Programming.” McGill Journal of Education 37. (Fall 2002), 387–403. 

Romaine, Suzanne. “The Impact of Language Policy on Endangered Languages.” Democracy and Human Rights in Multicultural Societies. ed. UNESCO. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 2007, 217–238.

Statement by Prime Minister on Release of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.” Prime Minister of Canada. Last modified December 15 2015,

Teslin Tlingit Council. Lingít Yoo X̱’atángi ḵa Haa Shagóon. Statute Of The Teslin Tlingit Council, July 12, 2017.

White, Frederick. “Rethinking Native American Language Revitalization.” American Indian Quarterly 30.1–2 (2006), 91–109.

Wilson, William. “USDE Violations of NAIA and the Testing Boycott at Nāwahīokalani’ōpu’u School.” Journal of American Indian Education 51.3 (2012), pp. 30–45.

Wilson, William. “Higher Education In Indigenous Language Revitalization.” The Routledge Handbook of Language Revitalization. Ed. Leanne Hinton, Leena Huss, and Gerald Roche. New York: Routledge, 2018.

Wilson, William and Kaunoe Kamanā. “Insights from Indigenous Language Immersion in Hawai‘i.” Immersion Education : Practices, Policies, Possibilities. Ed. Diane J. Tedick, Donna Christian and Tara Williams Fortune. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2011.

Recommended Theses and Dissertations

Burge, Heather. “Prospective Aspect in Tlingit.” Master’s thesis, University of British Columbia Vancouver, 2017.

Recommended Videos

Cadiente, Jig̱éit Tláa Irene. “Tlingit Ceremony in UAS Elementary Tlingit Class (clip 3).” YouTube. Oct 12, 2012.

Cooley, Bessie. “Keiyishí Bessie Cooley — Kooḵhittaan: On Studying Tlingit.” YouTube. Lingít Language Champions & Simon Fraser University. Translated by X̱ ʼunei Lance Twitchell. Retrieved from

Dutson, Marge. “Sháaxʼ Sáani — Haa Léelkʼu Has Du Yoo X̱ʼatángi (Tlingit Language).” YouTube. Dec 13, 2013.

—-. “Sháaxʼ Sáani — Yoo X̱ʼatángi Yís (Tlingit Language) 5/5/2014.” YouTube. May 6, 2014.

Eggleston, Keri, Alice Taff, and Lance Twitchell. “2013 (06.a.2) — Gathering Tlingit Phrases for Children.” YouTube. Retrieved from

George, Cyril. “Ḵaalḵ.awu X̱ʼéidáx̱ Ling.t Yoo X̱ʼatángi Daat (Tlingit Language).” trans. Lance Twitchell. Retrieved from

—-. “Ḵaalḵáawu X̱ʼéidáx̱ Sh kalneek — Déix̱ — Aak’wtaatseen (Tlingit Language).” trans. Ishmael Hope and Lance Twitchell. YouTube. Retrieved from

Hotch, Góox̱dakashú Joe, et al. “2013 (02.3) — Language Panel.” 2013 Clan Conference. YouTube. Nov 27, 2013.

James, Norman. “Ḵaaklgéi — Yaa Ḵoosgé Daakeit (Tlingit Language).” translated by X̱ʼunei Lance Twitchell. YouTube. Aug 14, 2013. Lingít Language Chanpions and Simon Fraser University. Retrieved from

Katzeek, Smitty. “Tánkʼ X̱ʼéidáx̱ Áyá, Ishka Hít Sʼaatí, G̱aanax̱teidí, Tlákw Aan (Tlingit language).” Tranlated by X̱ʼunei Lance Twitchell. YouTube. Feb 21, 2013. Retrieved from

Maracle, Brian. “Learning Mohawk – Before and After.” YouTube. Uploaded Sep 19, 2011. Retrieved from

Martin, John Keihéenákʼw. “Keihéenákʼw — Haa Léelkʼu Has Du Yoo X̱ʼatángi (Tlingit Language)”. YouTube. Translation & transcription by John Martin and X̱ʼunei Lance Twitchell. Retrieved from

Soboleff, Walter and George Ramos. “54: T’aawchán, X̱aajaakwtí, Shgóonde Walter Soboleff and Woochjixʼoo Éesh George Ramos.” Woosh Een áyá Yoo X̱ʼatudli.átk: Tlingit Conversation Documentation Project, 2007-2013 University of Alaska Southeast, Alaska Languages Program. Trans X̱ʼaagi Shaawú Keri Eggleston, Shaksháani Margaret Dutson, Alice Taff, and X̱ʼunei Lance Twitchell. Retrieved from

Twitchell, X̱ʼunei Lance. Haa Yoo X̱ʼatángi Káx̱ Ḵulagaawú: Language Warriors (final). YouTube. Nov 17, 2016. Retrieved from


Recommended Books

Freire, Paulo (2014-08-18). Pedagogy of the Oppressed: 30th Anniversary Edition. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014.

Lorde, Audre. Sister Outsider: Essays & Speeches by Audre Lorde. Berkley: Crossing Press, 2007.

Recommended Articles

Demmert, William G. “What is Culture-Based Education? Understanding Pedagogy and Curriculum.” Honoring Our Heritage: Culturally Appropriate Approaches for Teaching Indigenous Students. Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University, 2011. Retrieved from

Fire Thunder, Cecilia. “Returning to Being Good Relatives: Addressing Lateral Oppression and Violence.” Futures Without Violence. 21 Oct 2015 Retrieved from

Mignolo, Walter D. “Delinking the Rhetoric of Modernity, the Logic of Coloniality and the Grammar of De-Coloniality.” Cultural Studies 21.2–3 (March/May 2007): 449–514.

Mitchell, Terry. “Colonial Trauma and Political Pathways to Healing,” in Indigenous Cultures and Mental Health Counselling: Four Directions for Integration With Counselling Psychology. Edited by Suzanne L. Stewart, Roy Moodley, and Ashley Hyatt. New York: Routledge Press, 2017, 141–154.

National Congress of American Indians. “Education.” NCAI. Retrieved from

Prilleltensky, Isaac and Wilfrid Laurier. “Polities Change, Oppression Remains: on the Psychology and Politics of Oppression.” Political Psychology, 17:1 (1996), 389 – 400.

Recommended Videos

Jackson, Moana. “He Manawa Whenua 2017 Day 3.” Te Kotahi Research Institute. YouTube. Retrieved from